from photographer Ann & Rob Simpson

Prothonotary Warbler spreading its tail while preening. Appropriately called the...

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Caption: Prothonotary Warbler spreading its tail while preening. Appropriately called the "Golden Swamp Warbler" by Audubon. It inhabits wooded wetlands, river edges and swamps of the Carolinian zone in Eastern North America. Although it is a common representative species of the Great southern swamps, it does breed all the way to southern Ontario, Canada, at Point Pelee National Park and Rondeau Provincial Park. This neotropical migrant winters from the Yucatan in Mexico to northern South America. It is a declining species suffering from loss of habitat on both it's breeding and wintering grounds. The species is a frequent cowbird host.
Scientific name: Protonoaria citrea
Location: Shenandoah River, Virginia, U.S.A
Copyright: © Ann & Rob Simpson
AGPix ID: AGPix_RoAnSi18_0052
Photo Alignment: 35mm (vertical)
Comments: Unlike most warblers, this species nests in tree cavities. Old woodpecker holes may be used or they may excavate a hole in very rotten stumps. They will also use Bluebird boxes that are placed over standing water in a swamp. They are frequent host to Cowbirds, which act as a nest parasite. One Prothonotary nest had seven cowbird eggs and no warbler eggs. They show interspecific aggression towards other cavity nesters like bluebirds, wrens and woodpeckers. This species typifies the swamps of the south-eastern United States. The Great Dismal swamp Wildlife Refuge and First Landing (Seashore) State Park, Virginia, ring with thier song. We have a very comprehensive selection of birds, especially the hard to find and hard to photograph species.

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Ann & Rob Simpson
1932 E Refuge Church Rd.
Stephens City VA 22655-9607

540 869-2051

540 869-2051



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Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota, is a monumental granite sculpture by Gutzon Borglum (1867-1941), located within the United States Presidential Memorial that represents the first 150 years of the history of the United States of America with 60-foot (18 m) sculptures of the heads of former United States presidents (left to right): George Washington (1732-1799), Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), and Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865).[1] The entire memorial covers 1,278.45 acres (5.17 km2)[2] and is 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level.[3] It is managed by the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The memorial attracts approximately two million people annually. Between October 4, 1927, and October 31, 1941, Gutzon Borglum and 400 workers sculpted the colossal 60-foot (18 m) carvings of U.S. presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln to represent the first 150 years of American history. These presidents were selected by Borglum because of their role in preserving the Republic and expanding its territory.[8][10] The image of Thomas Jefferson was originally intended to appear in the area at Washington's right, but after the work there was begun, the rock was found to be unsuitable, so the work on the Jefferson figure was dynamited, and a new figure was sculpted to Washington's left.[8]  In 1933, the National Park Service took Mount Rushmore under its jurisdiction. Engineer Julian Spotts helped with the project by improving its infrastructure. For example, he had the tram upgraded so that it could reach the top of Mount Rushmore for the ease of workers. By July 4, 1934, Washington's face had been completed and was dedicated. The face of Thomas Jefferson was dedicated in 1936, and the face of Abraham Lincoln was dedicated on September 17, 1937. In 1937, a bill was introduced in Congress to add the head of civil-rights leader Susan B. Anthony, but a rider was passed on an appropriations bill requiring that federal funds be used to finish only those heads that had already been started at that time.[11] In 1939, the face of Theodore Roosevelt was dedicated. The Sculptor's Studio--a display of unique plaster models and tools related to the sculpting--was built in 1939 under the direction of Borglum. Borglum died from an embolism in March 1941. His son, Lincoln Borglum, continued the project. Originally, it was planned that the figures would be carved from head to waist,[12] but insufficient funding forced the carving to end.[8] Borglum had also planned a massive panel in the shape of the Louisiana Purchase commemorating in eight-foot-tall gilded letters the Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, Louisiana Purchase, and seven other territorial acquisitions from Alaska to Texas to the Panama Canal Zone.[10]  The entire project cost US$989,992.32.[13] Notably for a project of such size, no workers died during the carving.[14]  On October 15, 1966, Mount Rushmore was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. An essay from Nebraska student William Andrew Burkett, selected as the winner for the college-age group in 1934, was placed on the Entablature on a bronze plate in 1973.[11] In 1991, President George H. W. Bush officially dedicated Mount Rushmore.  In a canyon behind the carved faces is a chamber, cut only 70 feet (21 m) into the rock, containing a vault with sixteen porcelain enamel panels. The panels include the text of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, biographies of the four presidents and Borglum, and the history of the U.S. The chamber was created as the entranceway to a planned "Hall of Records"; the vault was installed in 1998.[15]  Ten years of redevelopment work culminated with the completion of extensive visitor facilities and sidewalks in 1998, such as a Visitor Center, Museum, and the Presidential Trail. Maintenance of the memorial annually requires mountain climbers to monitor and seal cracks. The memorial is not cleaned to remove lichens. It has been cleaned only once. On July 8, 2005, Kärcher GmbH, a German manufacturer of cleaning machines, conducted a free cleanup operation; the washing used pressurized water at over 200 °F (93 °C). {Mount Rushmore}, North America; United States of America {America, U.S., United States, US, USA}; Mount Rushmore National Memorial, near Keystone, South Dakota;
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