Ann & Rob Simpson
http://www.agpix.com/snphotos

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white-necked jacobin, Florisuga mellivora;  feeding nectaring on Expanded Lobsterclaw, Heliconia latispatha, hummingbird, Trochilidae; Rancho Naturalista, mid elevation montane Caribbean Rainforest, 3000 feet elevation,Heliconia latispatha, Expanded Lobsterclaw [2] is a plant species native to southern Mexico (Tabasco, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Campeche), Central America and northern South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru) and naturalized in Florida and Jamaica. Costa Rica, Central America, CR3A4970czs.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
/ www.snphotos.com
white-necked jacobin,
Florisuga mellivora;
feeding...

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bluets; Quaker ladies, Houstonia caerulea, azure bluet, Hedyotis caerulea, mountain bluets, and Common Blue Violet, Viola sororia, Wooly Blue Violet, Viola papilionacea, Shenandoah National Park, Limberlost Trail,  handicap accessible trail, family trail designation, old growth virgin Hemlock Forest in danger because of Hemlock Wooly Adelgid, VA, day short hike, chestnut-chestnut oak forest association, SNP024794ws.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
bluets; Quaker ladies,
Houstonia caerulea,...

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Lotus, Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae. This plant is an aquatic perennial. Under favorable circumstances its seeds may remain viable for many years, with the oldest recorded lotus germination being from that of seeds 1,300 years old recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China. The roots of lotus are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on top of the water surface or are held well above it.  Researchers report that the lotus has the remarkable ability to regulate the temperature of its flowers to within a narrow range just as humans and other warmblooded animals do. Roger S. Seymour and Paul Schultze-Motel, physiologists at the University of Adelaide in Australia, found that lotus flowers blooming in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens maintained a temperature of 30-35 °C (86-95 °F), even when the air temperature dropped to 10 °C (50 °F). They suspect the flowers may be doing this to attract coldblooded insect pollinators. Studies published in the journals Nature and Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences were in 1996 and 1998 important contributions in the field of thermoregulation, heat-producing, in plants. Two other species known to be able to regulate their temperature include Symplocarpus foetidus and Philodendron selloum. An individual lotus can live for over a thousand years and has the rare ability to revive into activity after stasis. In 1994, a seed from a sacred lotus, dated at roughly 1,300 years old ± 270 years, was successfully germinated. Nelumbo nucifera shows high potential for usage in wastewater treatment removing polluting compounds and heavy metals. It is able to grow in variable water conditions and in low light intensity. Various studies show the successful use of N. nucifera to counteract water eutrophication. The leafs of the floating Lotus reduces sunlight reaching the lower part of the water. This suppresses algae growth in N. nucifera aquatic systems and thus, the oxygen content is up to 20% higher than in other aquatic plant systems. Due to intense agricultural practices, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution are major problems in aquatic systems. N. nucifera is able to assimilate phosphorus in a higher content than currently used aquatic plants for water remediation (such as water hyacinth). It assimilates nitrogen and additionally creates a habitat for bacterial growth in the water body including denitrification. Through rhizofiltration heavy metals including arsenic, copper, cadmium can be removed efficiently from the water. The results observed are impressive showing 96% of copper and 85% cadmium metals removed after a seven-day incubation period. The accumulation of heavy metals doesn't show morphological symptoms of metal toxicity; however, the rhizome quality for human consumption needs further study. They are consumed as a vegetable in Asian countries, extensively in China and Japan: sold whole or in cut pieces, fresh, frozen, or canned. They are fried or cooked mostly in soups, soaked in syrup or pickled in vinegar (with sugar, chili and garlic). Lotus rhizomes have a crunchy texture with sweet-tangy flavours and are a classic dish at many banquets where they are deep-fried, stir-fried, or stuffed with meats or preserved fruits. Salads with prawns, sesame oil or coriander leaves are also popular. Unfortunately, fresh lotus root slices are limited by a fast browning rate.Wiki. Lotus root tea is consumed in Korea. Grand Palace Wat Phra Kaeo or Temple of the Emerald Buddha, which contains a beautiful Emerald Buddha that dates back to the 14th century. The immediate area is filled with magnificent statures, temples and murals.  Grand Palace was a former residence for King Rama I to King Rama V of the Rattanakosin Kingdom. Today, the place is used for hosting royal ceremonies and welcoming the king's guests, State guests, and other foreign dignitaries. It is also a place where remains of kings and high-ranked members of the royal family were situated before cremation. Bangkok Chao Phraya River delta, Grand Palace, is a complex of buildings at the heart of Bangkok, Thailand. The palace has been the official residence of the Kings of Siam since 1782. The king, his court and his royal government were based on the grounds of the palace until 1925. Bangkok's famous palace complex was built in 1782 and features several magnificent buildings including  Bangkok  is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep. Thailand, Asia; Pacific Rim; Lotus34259.CR2
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Lotus, Nelumbo nucifera, also
known...

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Large-flowered (White) Trillium, Trillium grandiflorum,  large white trillium, Trillium grandiflorum var. roseum, {large-flowered trillium, turns pink with age but these opened out pink;  VA, Virginia, Shenandoah National Park,  hike to Hightop on Appalachian Trail, TrilliumLF2540.CR2
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Large-flowered (White)
Trillium, Trillium
grandiflorum,...


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guanaco, Lama guanicoe, is a camelid native to South America that stands between 1 and 1.2 metres (3 ft 3 in and 3 ft 11 in) at the shoulder[2] and weighs about 90 kg (200 lb). The colour varies very little (unlike the domestic llama), ranging from a light brown to dark cinnamon and shading to white underneath. Guanacos have grey faces and small straight ears. To protect its neck from harm, the guanaco has developed thicker skin on its neck. The name guanaco comes from the South American language Quechua word wanaku (old spelling, huanaco).[3] Young guanacos are called chulengo(s). Guanacos are often found at high altitudes, up to 13,000 feet above sea level, except in Patagonia, where the southerly latitude means ice covers the vegetation at these altitudes. To survive the low oxygen levels found at these high altitudes the blood is rich in red blood cells. A teaspoon of guanaco blood contains about 68 billion red blood cells, ~four times that of a human.Torres del Paine National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Torres del Paine) is a national park encompassing mountains, glaciers, lakes, and rivers in southern Chilean Patagonia. The Cordillera del Paine is the centerpiece of the park. It lies in a transition area between the Magellanic subpolar forests and the Patagonian Steppes. Torres del Paine National Park is part of the Sistema Nacional de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas del Estado de Chile (National System of Protected Forested Areas of Chile). In 2006, it measured approximately 242,242 hectares. It is one of the largest and most visited parks in Chile. The Torres del Paine are the distinctive three granite peaks of the Paine mountain range or Paine Massif. They extend 2,850 meters above sea level, and are joined by the Cuernos del Paine. .  Chile, Patagonia, South America, Patagonian Scarlet Gorse, Anarthrophyllum desideratum, also known as Guanaco Bush or Fire Tongue, Called Mata Guanaco,(Guanaco Bush, Lengua de Fuego, Fire Tongue or Neneo Macho in Chile; Torres del Paine National Park Spanish: Parque Nacional Torres del Paine is a national park encompassing mountains, glaciers, lakes, and rivers in southern Chilean Patagonia. The Cordillera del Paine is the centerpiece of the park. It lies in a transition area between the Magellanic subpolar forests and the Patagonian Steppes. Torres del Paine National Park is part of the Sistema Nacional de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas del Estado de Chile (National System of Protected Forested Areas of Chile). In 2006, it measured approximately 242,242 hectares. It is one of the largest and most visited parks in Chile. The Torres del Paine are the distinctive three granite peaks of the Paine mountain range or Paine Massif. They extend 2,850 meters above sea level, and are joined by the Cuernos del Paine. The area also boasts valleys, rivers such as the Paine, lakes, and glaciers. The well-known lakes include Grey, Pehoé, Nordenskiöld, and Sarmiento. The glaciers, including Grey, Pingo and Tyndall, belong to the Southern Patagonia Ice Field. The park averages around 150,000 visitors a year, of which 60% are foreign tourists, Chile, Patagonia, South America, PATD3BG_3288oh.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
guanaco, Lama guanicoe, is
a...

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Wild Columbine, Aquilegia canadensis, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA, Appalachian Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains,columbine, Ranunculaceae; hummingbird pollinated, plants; flower; wildflower, angiosperm, wildflowers, wild flower, angiosperms; tubular flower, nectary, nectaries, Columbine81091_ARS.cr2
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Wild Columbine, Aquilegia
canadensis, Shenandoah...

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Turk's-cap Lily, Lilium superbum {Turk's cap Lily, Turkscap Lily, Turkscaplily, Swamp Lily, Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor, wildflower, wet meadows and woods, gentle giant of summer, native perennial} Craggy Gardens, Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina; Flora-Lily-TurksCap62766Ls.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Turk's-cap Lily, Lilium
superbum {Turk's...

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Virgin's Bower, Clematis virginiana, devil's darning needles, old man's beard, Humpback Rocks, Blue Ridge Parkway, Virginia,  BowerV9037zxs.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Virgin's Bower, Clematis
virginiana, devil's...


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Large-leaved lupine in Torres del Paine National Park; Large-leaved lupine, Lupinus polyphyllus, big-leaved lupine, many-leaved lupine and this showy species is often called  garden lupin or lupine as it is widely used in cultivation. It is native to western North America from southern Alaska and British Columbia east to Quebec, and western Wyoming, and south to Utah and California. It commonly grows along streams and creeks, preferring moist habitats. It has escaped from gardens and is introduced and or invasive in eastern North America, much of Europe, New Zealand and parts of South America all the way to Patagonia, Chile. The leaves are palmately compound. The flowers are produced on a tall spike, most commonly blue to purple in wild plants. The flowers are mostly visited by bumblebees. The Lupinus polyphyllus polyphyllus variety in particular make up a great number of the hybrids which are generally grown as garden lupines, they can vary dramatically in colours.  Davis and Stout (1986) measured quantities of anagyrine that exceeded the minimum necessary to cause crooked calf disease (teratogenic deformities) in calves. Most Lupinus have toxic alkaloids in their legumes, seeds.  Parque Nacional Torres del Paine; is a national park encompassing mountains, glaciers, lakes, and rivers in southern Chilean Patagonia. The Cordillera del Paine is the centerpiece of the park. It lies in a transition area between the Magellanic subpolar forests and the Patagonian Steppes. Torres del Paine National Park is part of the Sistema Nacional de Áreas Silvestres Protegidas del Estado de Chile (National System of Protected Forested Areas of Chile). In 2006, it measured approximately 242,242 hectares. It is one of the largest and most visited parks in Chile. The Torres del Paine are the distinctive three granite peaks of the Paine mountain range or Paine Massif. They extend 2,850 meters above sea level, and are joined by the Cuernos del Paine. The area also boasts valleys, rivers such as the Paine, lakes, and glaciers. The well-known lakes include Grey, Pehoé, Nordenskiöld, and Sarmiento. The glaciers, including Grey, Pingo and Tyndall, belong to the Southern Patagonia Ice Field. The park averages around 150,000 visitors a year, of which 60% are foreign tourists, In contrast, South American Lupine, Lupinus mutabilis, is a species of lupin grown in the Andes, mainly for its edible bean. Vernacular names include tarwi, tarhui, chocho, altramuz, Andean lupin, South American lupin, Peruvian field lupin, or pearl lupin. There are different aspects why L. mutabilis could become an important international crop. But until now, the high content of alkaloids in the seed is the main reason why the crop is not very known outside the Andes. This content could be decreased by different processes. Spanish: lupine, Lupinus sp: Seeds of this genus of flowering plants from the legume family have been used as a food source in the Andean Highlands for over 6000 years. Lupinus mutabilis,  known as tarwi or chocho, was extensively cultivated by the Incas. Users would soak the seeds in running water to remove bitter alkaloids, and then either cooked them to make them edible or boiled and dried them. They're coming back into fashion as an alternative to soybeans. Chile, Patagonia, South America, PAT2C3333czsntvUSE.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Large-leaved lupine in Torres
del...

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Eastern Chipmunk, Tamias striatus; eating Northern Leatherflower, Vase-vine, Clematis viorna flowers even though all parts of Clematis are toxic to humans and many other animals; the chipmunk actively sought out these flowers; Mount Pisgah Recreation area, Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina; EaChipmunk0590.CR2
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Eastern Chipmunk, Tamias
striatus; eating...

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Purple Blue of Siam Waterlily, Nymphaea nouchali, often known by its synonym Nymphaea stellata, or by common names blue lotus,  star lotus, red and blue water lily, blue star water lily or manel flower; N. nouchali is considered a medicinal plant in Indian Ayurvedic medicine under the name ambal; it was mainly used to treat indigestion. Like all water lilies or lotuses, its tubers and rhizomes can be used as food items; they are eaten usually boiled or roasted. In the case of N. nouchali, its tender leaves and flower peduncles are also valued as food. The dried plant is collected from ponds, tanks, and marshes during the dry season and used in India as animal forage.  Buddhist lore in Sri Lanka claims that this flower was one of the 108 auspicious signs found on Prince Siddhartha's footprint. It is said that when Buddha died, lotus flowers blossomed everywhere he had walked in his lifetime. Thailand, Asia; Pacific Rim; Waterlily34238L.tiff
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Purple Blue of Siam
Waterlily,...

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bluets; Quaker ladies, Houstonia caerulea, azure bluet, Hedyotis caerulea, mountain bluets, and Common Blue Violet, Viola sororia, Wooly Blue Violet, Viola papilionacea, Shenandoah National Park, Limberlost Trail,  handicap accessible trail, family trail designation, old growth virgin Hemlock Forest in danger because of Hemlock Wooly Adelgid, VA, day short hike, chestnut-chestnut oak forest association, SNP024923zs3.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
bluets; Quaker ladies,
Houstonia caerulea,...


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spotted beebalm, horsemint, Monarda punctata is a herbaceous plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae, that is native to eastern Canada, the eastern United States and northeastern Mexico. It is a thyme-scented plant The plant contains thymol, an antiseptic and fungicide. [2] It was historically used to treat upset stomachs, colds, diarrhea, neuralgia and kidney disease. Meadows managed for butterfly larval and pollinator plants as well as hummingbird flowers. In the fall and winter the meadows provide cover and food for a wide variety of bird, mammal and insect species, including sparrows, finches, titmice, chickadees, deer, foxes, voles, bees, bumble-bees, butterflies including monarchs ... Sky Meadows State Park, Virginia, USA; MonardaP13337V20.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
/ www.snphotos.com
spotted beebalm, horsemint,
Monarda punctata...

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spotted beebalm, horsemint, Monarda punctata is a herbaceous plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae, that is native to eastern Canada, the eastern United States and northeastern Mexico. It is a thyme-scented plant The plant contains thymol, an antiseptic and fungicide. [2] It was historically used to treat upset stomachs, colds, diarrhea, neuralgia and kidney disease. Meadows managed for butterfly larval and pollinator plants as well as hummingbird flowers. In the fall and winter the meadows provide cover and food for a wide variety of bird, mammal and insect species, including sparrows, finches, titmice, chickadees, deer, foxes, voles, bees, bumble-bees, butterflies including monarchs ... Sky Meadows State Park, Virginia, USA; MonardaP13367V20.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
/ www.snphotos.com
spotted beebalm, horsemint,
Monarda punctata...

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spotted beebalm, horsemint, Monarda punctata is a herbaceous plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae, that is native to eastern Canada, the eastern United States and northeastern Mexico. It is a thyme-scented plant The plant contains thymol, an antiseptic and fungicide. [2] It was historically used to treat upset stomachs, colds, diarrhea, neuralgia and kidney disease. Meadows managed for butterfly larval and pollinator plants as well as hummingbird flowers. In the fall and winter the meadows provide cover and food for a wide variety of bird, mammal and insect species, including sparrows, finches, titmice, chickadees, deer, foxes, voles, bees, bumble-bees, butterflies including monarchs ... Sky Meadows State Park, Virginia, USA; MonardaP13388V20.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
/ www.snphotos.com
spotted beebalm, horsemint,
Monarda punctata...

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white-necked jacobin, Florisuga mellivora;  feeding nectaring on Expanded Lobsterclaw, Heliconia latispatha, hummingbird, Trochilidae; Rancho Naturalista, mid elevation montane Caribbean Rainforest, 3000 feet elevation,Heliconia latispatha, Expanded Lobsterclaw [2] is a plant species native to southern Mexico (Tabasco, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Campeche), Central America and northern South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru) and naturalized in Florida and Jamaica. Costa Rica, Central America, JacobinWn4942zh1s.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
/ www.snphotos.com
white-necked jacobin,
Florisuga mellivora;
feeding...


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Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris, nectaring at Cardinal Flower, The sweet reward to attract a hummingbird is found in the nectaries at the end of the long tubular parts of the flower. The hummingbirds face and beak will get dusted in pollen which may be be rubbed on a sticky stigma of another Cardinal Flower  in tne hummingbirds constant quest for the sweet sugary nectar. Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris, male at Cardinal Flower, Lobelia cardinalis,  Shenandoah National Park, Virginia; North America; USA; Appalachian Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, birds {avain, aves, bird}; hummingbird, Trochilidae, {neotropical migrant}; {ruby-throated hummingbird, RTHU}, plants; flower; wildflower, angiosperm {wildflowers, wild flower, angiosperms}; hummingbird pollinated, tubular flower, nectary, nectaries,  RubyThroatedHummingbird AnnRobSimpson4221DzR.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
/ www.snphotos.com
Ruby-throated Hummingbird,
Archilochus colubris,
nectaring...

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Large Fruit-eating Bat, Artibeus jamaicensis; Jamaican Friut-eating Bat, as the bat feeds on the nectar it is covered in the yellow flower pollen and thus acts as an inadvertent but very effective pollinator of the plant as it transfers the male pollen to a receptive female stimga when visiting another flower; AMERICAN LEAF-NOSED BATS, in the Family Phyllostomidae, TAILLESS BATS, in the Subfamily Stenodermatinae; bat, Chiroptera; Riviera Maya; Sandos Caracol Eco Resort, Mexico, Central America; Yucatán Peninsula, BatJFe2879cxUSEt1.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Large Fruit-eating Bat,
Artibeus jamaicensis;...

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Large Fruit-eating Bat, Artibeus jamaicensis; Jamaican Friut-eating Bat, as the bat feeds on the nectar it is covered in the yellow flower pollen and thus acts as an inadvertent but very effective pollinator of the plant as it transfers the male pollen to a receptive female stimga when visiting another flower; AMERICAN LEAF-NOSED BATS, in the Family Phyllostomidae, TAILLESS BATS, in the Subfamily Stenodermatinae; bat, Chiroptera; Riviera Maya; Sandos Caracol Eco Resort, Mexico, Central America; Yucatán Peninsula, BatJFe3174Ls.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Large Fruit-eating Bat,
Artibeus jamaicensis;...

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Queen's Crown, Rose Crown, Clementsia rhodantha; Mount Evans, Arapaho National Forest; Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA; QueensCrown61znNs_ARS.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
/ www.snphotos.com
Queen's Crown, Rose Crown,
Clementsia...


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Alpine Forget-me-not, Eritrichium aretioides, Eritrichium nanum, Eritrichium aretioides nanum, Rocky Mountain National Parkrk official flower, arctic alpine forget-me-not; Trail Ridge Road,  tundra, above treeline; alpine, alpine tundra, 11,000 + feet elevation; Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA; AlpineForgetMeNot3B6853zls.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Alpine Forget-me-not,
Eritrichium aretioides,
Eritrichium...

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Large yellow lady's slipper, Cypripedium parviflorum var pubescens, Lucky is the visitor who happens across the uncommon Large yellow lady's slipper, a native wild orchis.,  central section district, Big Meadows; Skyline DriveShenandoah National Park, Virginia; North America; United States of America, America, U.S., United States, US, USA; VA, Appalachian Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, plants; flower; wildflower, angiosperm, wildflowers, wild flower, angiosperms; orchid, Family Orchidaceae; Large yellow lady's slipper, = Cypripedium pubescens, Cypripedium parviflorum var pubescens, Cypripedium calceolus, YellowLadysSlipper10140213147_ARS.CR2
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Large yellow lady's slipper,
Cypripedium...

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Pipevine Swallowtail,  Battus philenor, and Eastern Tiger swallowtail, Papilio glaucus, Butterfly, nectaring on Turk's-cap Lily, Lilium superbum; Turk's cap Lily, Turkscap Lily, Turkscaplily, Swamp Lily, wildflower, wet meadows and woods, gentle giant of summer, native perennial; Craggy Gardens,  road to picnic area, picnic grounds, Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina; Swallowtail1533.CR2
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Pipevine Swallowtail, Battus
philenor, and...

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Fairy Slipper Orchid, Calypso bulbosa; = Calypso Orchid; Sprague Lake, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA; CalypsoOrchid488846_ARS.CR2
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Fairy Slipper Orchid, Calypso
bulbosa;...


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Turk's-cap Lily, Lilium superbum {Turk's cap Lily, Turkscap Lily, Turkscaplily, Swamp Lily, Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor, wildflower, wet meadows and woods, gentle giant of summer, native perennial} Craggy Gardens, Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina; LilyTC62766czs85.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Turk's-cap Lily, Lilium
superbum {Turk's...

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spotted touch me not, Impatiens capensis, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia; North America; United States of America, America, U.S., United States, US, USA; VA, Appalachian Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, plants; flower; wildflower, angiosperm {wildflowers, wild flower, angiosperms}; impatiens; {spotted touch-me-not, jewelweed, spotted jewelweed, wild touch-me-not, wild-touch-me-not, orange jewelweed, blooms in Summer, hermaphrodite, pollinated by bees, orange to red funnel-shaped flowers, faunal associations, hummingbird attractant, self-fertile, medicinal uses, treats skin ailments}, JewelweedS111zxs.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
spotted touch me not,
Impatiens...

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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru41094r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...

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Purple corn is found mostly in Peru, has been cultivated for thousands of years.  cultivated from the coast to almost ten thousand feet high.  It has been extensively used as a staple food and a natural coloring purple dye.There are different genetic strains of purple corn, all of which originated from the line called "Kculli", which is still cultivated in Peru.  Objects in the shape of these particular ears of corn have been found in archeological sites at least 2,500 years old.   Maiz morado, a purple corn native to Peru, special for its delicate lemon-blossomy flavor. Purple corn (maiz morado) is a major Andean crop.  Andeans make a refreshing drink from purple corn called "chicha morada".  It is also one of nature's richest sources of at least six different anthocyanin antioxidants. Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru41075r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Purple corn is found mostly...


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Qaqa Sunka, beard lichen, Usnea barbata, Dark blues dye, red, pink, orange, purpleChinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru41098r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Qaqa Sunka, beard lichen,
Usnea...

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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru41033r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...

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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru40946r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...

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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru40940r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...


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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru40896r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...

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scarlet passion flower, Passiflora coccinea, red passion flower, Passionflower, Passiflora sp. Ceiba Tops Lodge, Amazon River, The Amazon, Rio Amazonas, in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world and according to most authorities, the second longest in length - Wikipedia; Amazon River rainforest, Peru, South America, Passionflower48363.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
scarlet passion flower,
Passiflora coccinea,...

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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru40862r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...

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American Black Bear, Ursus americanus; cub eating sniffing a dandelion, young, baby, Waterton National Park, Alberta, Canada; BearnB1003781dzs.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
American Black Bear, Ursus
americanus;...


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Giant Victoria Lily or Amazon Lily, Victoria amazonica is found in oxbow lakes and bayous of the Amazon River and its tributaries. It is the national flower of Guyana. The fragrant flowers are white the first night they are open and start out as female flowers. The second night they become pink and change into male flowers. They are pollinated by scarab beetles. The sexual alteration helps prevent self pollination. On their third day the pollinated flowers sink to the river bottom to develop into a seed pod and produce seeds and when mature float to disperse the seeds. Apparently the spines on the underside of the leaves are a defense mechanism against Amazon manatees. Ceiba Tops Lodge, Amazon River, The Amazon, Rio Amazonas, in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world and according to most authorities, the second longest in length - Wikipedia; Amazon River rainforest, Peru, South America, LilyGA149208u.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Giant Victoria Lily or
Amazon...

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Giant Victoria Lily or Amazon Lily, Victoria amazonica is found in oxbow lakes and bayous of the Amazon River and its tributaries. It is the national flower of Guyana. The fragrant flowers are white the first night they are open and start out as female flowers. The second night they become pink and change into male flowers. They are pollinated by scarab beetles. The sexual alteration helps prevent self pollination. On their third day the pollinated flowers sink to the river bottom to develop into a seed pod and produce seeds and when mature float to disperse the seeds. Apparently the spines on the underside of the leaves are a defense mechanism against Amazon manatees. Ceiba Tops Lodge, Amazon River, The Amazon, Rio Amazonas, in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world and according to most authorities, the second longest in length - Wikipedia; Amazon River rainforest, Peru, South America, LilyGA149205u.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Giant Victoria Lily or
Amazon...

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Giant Victoria Lily or Amazon Lily, Victoria amazonica is found in oxbow lakes and bayous of the Amazon River and its tributaries. It is the national flower of Guyana. The fragrant flowers are white the first night they are open and start out as female flowers. The second night they become pink and change into male flowers. They are pollinated by scarab beetles. The sexual alteration helps prevent self pollination. On their third day the pollinated flowers sink to the river bottom to develop into a seed pod and produce seeds and when mature float to disperse the seeds. Apparently the spines on the underside of the leaves are a defense mechanism against Amazon manatees. Ceiba Tops Lodge, Amazon River, The Amazon, Rio Amazonas, in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world and according to most authorities, the second longest in length - Wikipedia; Amazon River rainforest, Peru, South America, LilyGA149210u.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Giant Victoria Lily or
Amazon...

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Giant Victoria Lily or Amazon Lily, Victoria amazonica is found in oxbow lakes and bayous of the Amazon River and its tributaries. It is the national flower of Guyana. The fragrant flowers are white the first night they are open and start out as female flowers. The second night they become pink and change into male flowers. They are pollinated by scarab beetles. The sexual alteration helps prevent self pollination. On their third day the pollinated flowers sink to the river bottom to develop into a seed pod and produce seeds and when mature float to disperse the seeds. Apparently the spines on the underside of the leaves are a defense mechanism against Amazon manatees. Ceiba Tops Lodge, Amazon River, The Amazon, Rio Amazonas, in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world and according to most authorities, the second longest in length - Wikipedia; Amazon River rainforest, Peru, South America, LilyGA149210uv.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Giant Victoria Lily or
Amazon...


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Giant Victoria Lily or Amazon Lily, Victoria amazonica is found in oxbow lakes and bayous of the Amazon River and its tributaries. It is the national flower of Guyana. The fragrant flowers are white the first night they are open and start out as female flowers. The second night they become pink and change into male flowers. They are pollinated by scarab beetles. The sexual alteration helps prevent self pollination. On their third day the pollinated flowers sink to the river bottom to develop into a seed pod and produce seeds and when mature float to disperse the seeds. Apparently the spines on the underside of the leaves are a defense mechanism against Amazon manatees. Ceiba Tops Lodge, Amazon River, The Amazon, Rio Amazonas, in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world and according to most authorities, the second longest in length - Wikipedia; Amazon River rainforest, Peru, South America, LilyGA149216u.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Giant Victoria Lily or
Amazon...

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Giant Victoria Lily or Amazon Lily, Victoria amazonica is found in oxbow lakes and bayous of the Amazon River and its tributaries. It is the national flower of Guyana. The fragrant flowers are white the first night they are open and start out as female flowers. The second night they become pink and change into male flowers. They are pollinated by scarab beetles. The sexual alteration helps prevent self pollination. On their third day the pollinated flowers sink to the river bottom to develop into a seed pod and produce seeds and when mature float to disperse the seeds. Apparently the spines on the underside of the leaves are a defense mechanism against Amazon manatees. Ceiba Tops Lodge, Amazon River, The Amazon, Rio Amazonas, in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world and according to most authorities, the second longest in length - Wikipedia; Amazon River rainforest, Peru, South America, LilyGA149270u.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Giant Victoria Lily or
Amazon...

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Giant Victoria Lily or Amazon Lily, Victoria amazonica is found in oxbow lakes and bayous of the Amazon River and its tributaries. It is the national flower of Guyana. The fragrant flowers are white the first night they are open and start out as female flowers. The second night they become pink and change into male flowers. They are pollinated by scarab beetles. The sexual alteration helps prevent self pollination. On their third day the pollinated flowers sink to the river bottom to develop into a seed pod and produce seeds and when mature float to disperse the seeds. Apparently the spines on the underside of the leaves are a defense mechanism against Amazon manatees. Ceiba Tops Lodge, Amazon River, The Amazon, Rio Amazonas, in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world and according to most authorities, the second longest in length - Wikipedia; Amazon River rainforest, Peru, South America, LilyGA149270uv.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Giant Victoria Lily or
Amazon...

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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru40879r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...


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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru40887r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...

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Chinchero weavers, rolling the ball of yarn back and forth in a special type of weaving;  unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru40903r.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, rolling the
ball...

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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru40931r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...

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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru41007r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...


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Chilca, Baccharis latifolia , green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Family: Asteraceae; Chilean romerillo; Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru41109r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chilca, Baccharis latifolia ,
green...

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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru41121r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...

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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru41123r.TIF
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...

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Chinchero weavers,with tourist, bartering, toruism now a major income source, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru41164.jpg
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers,with
tourist, bartering, toruism...


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Chinchero weavers, unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa, Luraypu, doble cara, Chinchero lliklla, traditional blankets, indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu, Natural Dyes used by Chinchinero weavers: Chilca , Baccharis latifolia Family: Asteraceae, green dye. Chillca in Quechua, Chilca, chilca black, white chilca; ch'illka in Quechua; Chilean romerillo; flowers from a bush called Qolle to make a golden yellow; copper sulfate from above Accha Alta to add to the flowers to make green; shapy, a vine from the jungle just over the mountain beyond Accha Alta, for pink; cochineal, the insect which feeds on cactus, for purple; and citric acid and alum to bump the cochineal dye solution to red. Kiko (flowers), Bidens andicola, Yellows; Qaqa Sunka, "beard lichen", Usnea barbata a lichen with Usnic acid; Dark blues; Indigo, Indigo suffruticosa; Purple Corn, purple dye; Chinchero, Andes Mountains; Chinchero or Chincheros, Chinchero or Chincheros has Inca ruins and a well-conserved medieval Spanish look. The town is one of the most beautiful ones in the Cuzco area. Chinchero is not in the Sacred Valley, but is close to it. The height from sea level of this town is 3762 m in the Andes Mountains so it is even higher than Cusco. There are Inca walls and old colonial Roman-Catholic churches. Some house walls are partly of Inca origin. The Inca influence makes Chincheros streets resemble Cuzco. Lots of traditional culture including the famous Chinchero weavers. Chinchero was the 'birthplace of the rainbow.' Located 45 minutes outside of Cusco on the high plain Pampa de Anta, Chinchero looks out on stunning views where rainbows frequently arch across potato fields during the rainy season. The colours of the rainbow can also be found throughout Chinchero textiles. The 40 adult weavers and 40 children of the community weaving association are masters in the textile art. Chinchero weavers traditionally weave in the doble cara, or two sided warp-faced, technique. Beginning in the 20th century weavers began to learn ley, or single-sided supplementary warp technique, as well as new designs from other communities. Today Chinchero weavers only create traditional textiles in the traditional techniques and designs of Chinchero, while they will utilize a variety of designs and techniques for other types of textiles. Chinchero lliklla, or traditional blankets, have a wide section of blue, red and/or green plain weave and symmetrical sections of designs. When natural indigo dye disappeared in the 20th century, many weavers chose to weave the traditionally blue plain weave section in black. For this reason, many Chinchero blankets from the early to mid 20th century have black plain weave rather than blue. Today the weavers of Chinchero have recovered natural dying and once more weave their plain-weave section in indigo blue, cochineal red, and ch'ilka green. Luraypu is the main design of the community and figures in the center of design strips with smaller designs to either side. Chinchero weavers are particularly proud of their unique boarder technique called ñawi awapa which is simultaneous woven and sewn onto the edges of textiles. In this technique the weft of the border weaving is also the thread used to sew the border onto the textile. (from weavers website); Peru, South America, Peru41190rzvc1.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Chinchero weavers, unique
boarder technique...

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bluets; Quaker ladies, Houstonia caerulea, azure bluet, Hedyotis caerulea, mountain bluets, and Common Blue Violet, Viola sororia, Wooly Blue Violet, Viola papilionacea, Shenandoah National Park, Limberlost Trail,  handicap accessible trail, family trail designation, old growth virgin Hemlock Forest in danger because of Hemlock Wooly Adelgid, VA, day short hike, chestnut-chestnut oak forest association, SNP024869wss.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
bluets; Quaker ladies,
Houstonia caerulea,...

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Turk's-cap Lily, Lilium superbum {Turk's cap Lily, Turkscap Lily, Turkscaplily, Swamp Lily, Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor, wildflower, wet meadows and woods, gentle giant of summer, native perennial} Craggy Gardens, Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina; LilyT62757zs1ocnd.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Turk's-cap Lily, Lilium
superbum {Turk's...

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Turk's-cap Lily, Lilium superbum {Turk's cap Lily, Turkscap Lily, Turkscaplily, Swamp Lily, Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor, wildflower, wet meadows and woods, gentle giant of summer, native perennial} Craggy Gardens, Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina; BlueRidge6B62757zs1oc.tif
© Ann & Rob Simpson
Turk's-cap Lily, Lilium
superbum {Turk's...


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